Friday, May 4, 2007

History of The Kelantan Sultanate

Kelantan is called “Darul Naim” which means a “Blessed State”. The said name “Darul Naim” was proposed by the State Mufti Haji Wan Muhammad bin Abdul Samad in 1916 and was consented by His Royal Highness Sultan Muhammad IV.

The State of Kelantan Darul Naim has existed as an independent Sultanate since the 15th century. The Kelantan Sultanate founded by Sultan Iskandar Shah, was centralized at Ninggiri, Ulu Kelantan. The Sultan’s son, Sultan Mansur Shah, later ruled Kelantan. Upon the demise of Sultan Mansur Shah in 1526, his son Raja Gumbak ascended the throne taking the title of Sultan. After the death of Sultan Gumbak, His Royal Highness’s grandson, Sultan Ahmad Shah succeeded him.

His Royal Highness Sultan Ahmad Shah died in 1589 when his princess Cik Wan Kembang was only 4 years old, thus Raja Hussin was chosen as regent. When His Royal Highness died, Chik Wan Kembang was installed as ruler at Gunung Chinta Wangsa in Ulu Kelantan.

During the reign of Chik Siti Wan Kembang, another kingdom existed at Jembal under the reign of Raja Sakti. His son Raja Loyor succeeded him. Raja Loyor had a daughter of great beauty, named Puteri Saadong.

Since Cik Siti Wan Kembang had no children, she adopted Puteri Saadong making her heir to her throne. Puteri Saadong married Raja Abdullah who was conferred as Sultan at “Tanah Serendah Sekebun Bunga, Cherang Tegayong”. This was later moved to Kota Jelasin and Kota Mahligai.

When Raja Abdullah died, Raja Ab. Rahim became the Sultan at Kota Mahligai. The Jembal Kingdom was not heard of again until 1675 when Sultan Omar ruled it. After the death of Sultan Omar, Long Bahar was crowned as Sultan of Jembal and was later succeeded by his son, Long Sulaiman who sat on the throne at Kota Kubang Labu.

After Sultan Sulaiman died, Long Pandak ascended the throne and was then succeeded by Long Muhamad in 1756. In 1763 Long Yunus ascended the throne as Sultan who later moved the reigning center to Kota Pengkalan Galuh (Kota Lama). With determination, His Royal Highness succeeded in uniting the whole State of Kelantan under one reign.

Later Long Muhammad, the son of Long Yunus ascended the throne as Sultan Muhammad I. Long Jenal then succeeded his Royal Highness. After the death of Long Jenal, Long Senik was enthroned and reigned as Sultan Muhammad II at the Istana Balai Besar. In 1886, Long Sulong was crowned as Sultan and was known as Sultan Ahmad. Sultan Muhammad III ascended the throne after the death of his father, Sultan Ahmad. His Royal Highness was succeeded by his brother, Sultan Mansor in 1890.

In 1899, Tengku Long Senik was inaugurated to the throne as the Sultan, known as Sultan Muhammad IV. His Royal Highness Sultan Ismail ascended the throne at Istana Jahar after his father Sultan Muhammad IV passed away in 1920.

In 1944, Sultan Ibrahim ascended the throne at Istana Sri Cemerlang, Kota Bharu. After the death of Sultan Ibrahim, his son Tengku Yahya Petra was installed as the Sultan in 1960. His Royal Highness Sultan Yahya Petra passed away in 1979 at the Istana Negara during his term as the sixth King of Malaysia. High Royal Highness’s son, Tengku Ismail Petra was installed as Sultan and Yang DiPertuan for the state of Kelantan on 30th March 1979 and rule till to date.

Kota Bharu

Railway Bridge, Kota Bharu. circa 1920s

Remembrance of War Memorial, Kota Bharu. circa 1930s


Flood in Kelantan, circa 1920


Tumpat Town, circa 1936

Tumpat Railway Station, circa 1936

Thursday, May 3, 2007

Kelantan River

Kelantan River, circa 1919

Kelantan River, circa 1921